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Dobermann - History and FCI standard


The history of the Dobermann has been documented by many very reliable authors, who have sometimes spent a lifetime with this one breed of dog. It is highly recommended that anyone interested in including one of these magnificent animals in their family, to purchase and read at least one book (preferably more) that is written by these authors. It is also important that the potential new owner belong to a local Dobermann club; get to know the people who have experience in this breed, ask questions concerning training, nutrition, exercise, and temperament of the breed. The Dobermann is a noble-looking, elegant, powerful, and highly intelligent animal. The feelings between a Dobermann and its owner are reciprocal, the love and devotion that one has for the other is a mutual giving and receiving. That is one of the amazing benefits of ownership of this breed of dog. 

Dobes are very loving and intelligent pets. They are termed "Velcro" dogs because where you go, they are attached to you like they were Velcro'd fast. Dobermanns are termed, by many, as "the Cadillac of dogs" or "Ferrari dogs". They do everything with a bit of extra flair. They will offer you unbound love and devotion for their every minute in this world. When their time comes to go, they will not worry about themselves but will spend their last minute of life reassuring you that everything will be okay. The only bad part about owning a Dobermann is that their lifespan is so much shorter than ours. But the years you will have with your dobermann is a blessing.

The Dobermann had its beginnings in the city of Apolda, located in the state of Thuringia in Germany, in the middle of the nineteenth century (1850-talet). Louis Dobermann was reputed to be a tax collector in this area, and was also responsible for keeping the strays in the local dog pound.  Herr Dobermann carried money on his person, and wanted a dog for self protection. His ultimate aim was to possess a dog that was of average build, so that it could be intimidating to intruders or robbers.  A dog with a short, smooth coat would be easy to care for, with a minimum of grooming. The dog would also have to have great stamina, be intelligent, and display alertness, and even aggression. When he decided to use different breeds to develop this special guard dog, Herr Dobermann had a very specific end in mind.  His choices were not slap hazard, he picked and chose the dogs very carefully. This is one of the reasons why the "Doberman Pinscher" or Dobermann is referred to as "a man-made dog". Unfortunately, he did not keep any written records. 

However, some very good conjectures can be drawn from the knowledge we have of the anatomy and temperament of the Dobermann, and the knowledge of the type of dogs that were indigenous to that area and time. Nobody knows exactly which breeds were used in this early breeding but the German Pinscher was probably the foundation breed that Herr Dobermann used to build his new strain of dog.  This type of dog was described as being rather non-descript in looks, but the reputation of temperament that this dog had was one of alertness and aggressiveness. The Rottweiler was used in the development of the breed due to its massiveness and intelligence. This very solid dog also possessed great stamina, and had excellent tracking ability.  Sometimes the Rottweiler strain can be seen in a Doberman with a "wavy" coat. The Manchester Terrier contributed the black-and-tan coloration, and the short, shiny coat.  The Dobermann inherited some of the elegant looks, the refinement and line of this breed of dog. The Beauceron contributed size and color to the Dobermann bloodline.  The Beauceron was a solidly built dog, very alert, and was known to be intelligent as well. Also the Great Dane and the Old German Shepherd, not the German Shepherd as we know today, were probably included in the foundation breeding of the dobermann.

No precise early breeding records were kept, but many studies of the Dobermann's background conclude, that the following breeds and more (see above) may have been involved:

  1. Rottweiler
    The early version of this breed was probably used for its strength, courage and hardness.

  2. Black & Tan Terrier
    Now known as the Manchester Terrier and German Pinscher, this breed was probably used for its agility and high prey drive.

  3. Weimaraner
    and other hunting dogs may have been used for their endurance and superior instincts.

  4. Greyhound
    May have been used for their elegance, style and speed.

  5. Beauceron contributed size and color to the Dobermann bloodline. 


Here you see the only known photograph of Mr. Dobermann (on the left) with some dog friends and some unknown Mongrel dogs. 


By 1899, Dobermann enthusiasts had formed the first Dobermann breed club, which later became the DV (Dobermann Verein=Dobermann Club. This club developed the first official breed standard, which aims to clarify to breeders and fanciers how the correctly bred Dobermann should look and act. The Dobermann's own style developed very quickly and by the early 1930's, their look and character had already been molded into what we know of today.

Over a lifetime of sixty years of interbreeding, Herr Dobermann (lived 1823-1894) achieved great success in breeding the required character and created a breed of dog which showed to a considerable extent similar exterior characteristics - in other word "bred true".

Prinz Modern v. Ilm-Athen, whelped May 25, 1909.

Another breeder, Otto Goeller, was attracted to these dogs and through his efforts the breed was recognised as the Dobermann Pinscher (the word Pinscher being dropped later) in 1899. Otto Goeller and later Philip Gruenig (photo below) played a tremendous role in refining and developing the breed to its present form.


Since the beginning of the present century, the Dobermann has spread rapidly over Europe and America. Strangely enough, it was not until after World War II that the breed was introduced into England on any scale. The Dobermann was thought to have been introduced into Australia in 1952 although current research now indicates that their arrival was in fact a lot earlier. There have been numerous dogs imported from all over the world by devoted breeders.

The Dobermann was known as the "Devil Dog" by the American Marines and is their mascot. He earned his name during World War II in the Pacific where he used to go ashore with the marines and flush out the enemy. This name, together with his reputation as a guard and protector, has stuck in the minds of the public throughout the world. So today, a small sign on the front gate stating "Dobermann lives here" is usually sufficient to deter intruders. Certainly, a Dobermann by one’s side gives a person a supreme feeling of security.

Pictorial history of Dobermann - YouTube



It is in the Dobermann’s nature to be a trustworthy and loyal companion, usually gentle but as robust and tough as you care to make him. A great playmate for the children of "his family" he’ will quite happily join the family at the table and sleep in your bed... if you are foolish enough to encourage him. In fact, he will become very "human" if you forget to remind him that he is a dog! Though affectionate and obedient to his own the Dobermann can be quite stand-offish to those he does not know. However, he should not be nervous or aggressive in normal circumstances. A dog like this is unreliable and will react badly in times of stress. (See more specific about the character of the Dobermann below).

The Dobermann is a large, active and intelligent breed and you must be willing to provide the exercise and attention this dog needs.

Anyone buying a Dobermann for the Show or Obedience Trial ring must realise that they require DAILY training and exercise. All Dobermanns, pets included, should be housed on an adequately fenced property. In the world most local by-laws require this, and certainly lots of Dobermann Club members in the world insist on this before they will sell a puppy.

Every registered breed of dog has a "Standard" that describes in detail the true Breed Characteristics. In the Show ring, the Judge uses this Standard to asses the entrants. While not all pedigree dogs meet the Standard, a genuine pedigree guarantees that accurate records have been kept of the dog’s parentage. The pedigree can be a guide to the dog’s looks and character.

As the Dobermann breed is popular, it is important to sort the "wheat" from the "chaff" when it comes to breeders.

You should when viewing a litter be able to meet and handle the dam, but the sire does not necessarily belong to the breeder and therefore would not be available to see.

If you are buying a puppy for breeding in the future, or for the Show or Obedience Trial ring, the puppy must be registered with an affiliated State Controlling body. 

You should never purchase a puppy "without papers". All reputable breeders are almost certainly members of an affiliated Dobermann Club. You should view your puppy’s registration papers at the time of purchase.

Obedience and socialisation is highly recommended for all Dobermanns. Dobermanns generally need some type of control if they are to fit happily into the family and tend to excel at obedience. To use the words of the nursery rhyme. "When they are good they are very very good, and when they are bad........".


It is important that the public understand that in the early years of the Doberman Pinsher the breed was valued most for its aggressiveness. It had a use at that time, it was a working dog, used in guard work, military policing, and with the police. Today, the responsible breeder is more aware than ever before of the importance of temperament. The responsible breeder will not knowingly sell an aggressive tempered dog into a family situation. The aggressive types must be trained, and possessed, by a dominant (not abusive) owner, who has a job for the Dobie to do. A new owner to the Dobermann breed should have the common sense to research and get to know the breed very well before buying. He, or she, should not be getting the Dobie for the purpose of scaring his neighbours, or their dogs. If that is the case, shame on you. You possess an animal that can become dangerous in the wrong hands, yours. Just like a mishandled weapon, it's not the gun that kills, it is the mentality behind it.


More Dobie Characteristics

   Ask any Dobermann owner and they will tell you a Dobermann is a
   character with character. Look into those dark dancing eyes and you
   just know the Dobe is off to satisfy his curiosity. Investigating
   every tree and rock. Letting every blade of grass reveal it's
   "secrets" to a very fine tuned nose; alert for any movement (a
   squirrel, a lizard, a butterfly) that will provide a chase. Returning,
   perhaps with a grin, letting you know how fortunate you are to be
   "protected" by such a fine companion/guardian.
   NOTE: Dobe pups have a propensity to put "everything" in their mouths.
   Be sure to clear the yard/floor before letting a puppy out/down to
   Caution also needs to be taken if your Dobe will be encountering other
   dogs. With proper introductions (back to the early socialization and
   training) some Dobes will enjoy playing with other dogs. Other Dobes
   are not at all social.
   NOTE: Male Dobermanns are known to be territorial and normally WILL NOT
   accept other males in any situation...i.e. living with another male or
   meeting another male.
   Look into the soft loving eyes of a Dobe, read what he is saying...You
   are being told you are the center of this dog's world. He will match
   your emotions, takes direction from your acceptance or non-acceptance
   of a situation. If he perceives there is "something wrong with this
   picture" or senses your fear he comes to attention - the eyes change -
   ready to meet the challenge.
   NOTE: The instinct to protect is natural (i.e. early socialization
   will NOT undermine this trait), and further "guard dog" training is
   not necessary. A prospective Dobermann owner being advised to forego
   early socialization, puppy kindergarten, and obedience training to
   produce a protective Dobe is being ILL ADVISED!
   Living outside in a kennel or expected to stay in the backyard without
   constant attention and in a position as an important member of the
   family causes a host of problems with a Dobermann. Often a Dobe that is
   relegated to this type of living arrangement goes hand in hand with
   poor training and these Dobes often show evidences of shyness, fear,
   and nervousness.
   NOTE: As with any breed there will be dogs that exhibit these traits
   even when the breeding/training are correctly administered.
   Dobes are people dogs -- showing an extraordinary devotion to their
   family or owner. A Dobe is very happy to settle down once inside
   (providing he has had time to exercise) to share your home, your bed
   (takes it over), and your food. It is also very normal for your Dobe
   to smile, lean on you, bump your hand for more attention, and follow
   you from room to room. For these reasons, Dobes are often referred to
   as "Velcro" dogs and one of the advantages of such a dog is; you never
   have to go to the bathroom alone again!
   The Dobermann is no different in their reactions to children than any
   other breed of dog. Interaction with children when the Dobermann is a
   puppy often enables the dog to develop a strong loving bond with the
   child and family. There are also stories of rescued and older dogs
   adapting well to children. HOWEVER, as with any dog, ANY BREED, it is
   advisable NOT to leave dogs and small children unsupervised.
   When faced with sickness, Dobermanns can be quite stoic, concealing
   their pain long before you know something is wrong. A healthy Dobermann
   comes to you, or moves around in the yard, with a special little trot,
   while a sick Dobe does more walking or plodding, perhaps holding its
   head and neck level or down. Some Dobes curl up and don't want to
   move. Their eyes are sometimes sad and almost soul searching.
   Depending on the illness, some Dobes don't eat and may pace or move
   from one spot to another, restless and panting. Others may stretch a
   lot or try unsuccessfully to urinate. Dobes have been known to swallow
   items that can block the digestive track. If this is the case, your
   Dobe may not want to eat, or if he does eat, he will throw up, and
   pace and stretch again. Check with your vet if your Dobe shows any of
   these symptoms.
   The hardest part of owning a Dobe is to be confronted with evidence of
   his mortality, that a loyal companion may no longer be there. It is
   then that you are faced with your only disappointment in owning a Dobe
   - the loss of your loved one. "It is then in these hours ... that he
   will best be able to face this difficult time, if he looks to the
   demeanor of his Dobe ... for it is their distinction that they
   squarely face adversity, not unlike that of a professional soldier."

FCI standard n.143

        Dobermann standard (eng and swe)



           IDC Sg Baron Nike Renewal (Electras father), excellent Dobermann standard quality. 

FCI n.143 (1994-02-19)

FCI Classification: Group 2



A brief history about the Dobermann standard

The Dobermann standard is probably one of the most precise and clearly written standards around today. It leaves very little out, and clearly states that any deviation from it's description is penalized to the extent of that deviation. If it is NOT stated in the standard, it IS a deviation - that's very clear! To understand Dobermann structure, it's important to know it's original purpose.

The Dobermann was originally bred for its character, but designed to be geometrically and esthetically perfect. It began with what they wanted the dog to do - watchdog, guard dog, fearless, a short backed galloper, agile, fast, powerful and sturdy; to mention just a few things. Features for beauty were "built in" to the mathematical outline. The standard, from beginning to end, demands an orderly and harmonious arrangement of parts to create a statically and kinetically balanced dog. Thus whether the dog is standing or moving, the parts must be in total harmony. The impression of the dog should be the same, whether the dog is in motion or stationary. The key to the Dobermann is balance and proportion. All the parts fit into the other parts smoothly with no distractions. If any part stands out, whether good or bad, it takes away from the total picture and the balance and proportion is disrupted. As you go through the standard, you will see just how specific the description of the Dobermann is. Some points are so important, they are referred to in more than one section of the standard. To ignore the standard is an injustice to the breed and will change the Dobermann forever. 



 Dobermann Standard


General Appearance
The Dobermann is a medium sized, powerful and muscularly built dog. Thanks to the elegant lines of its body and its proud expression of determination, this dog conforms to the ideal figure of a dog.

The body of a Dobermann can fit in an imaginary square particularly in the male case. The length of the body, measured from the shoulder to the buttock, should not be more than 5% longer than the height in males and not more than 10% longer in females. (The height is measured from the withers to the ground.)

Temper and Behavior

The character of the Dobermann is friendly and peaceful. It is devoted to the family and is caring toward children. In dobermann we look for a medium temperament, a medium aggressiveness and a fair tolerance before reaction. The Dobermann is easily trainable and enjoys the work and has good working ability thanks to its decisiveness, braveness and strong temperament. Its self-confidence and its intrepidness are also required considering that this breed is very alert toward its surroundings and reactive toward all kind of events.


Cranial Region
The skull is strong and in proportion with the rest of the body. Viewed from the top the head resembles a blunt wedge. Viewed from the front the occiput's transversal line is leveled and does not curve toward the ears. The muzzle line extends almost straight to the top line of the skull and then gently round toward the nape. The superciliary ridge is well developed without protruding. The skull 's median sulcus is still visible. The occipital apophysis should not be too prominent. From a top and a frontal view the lateral side of the skull should not be bulging.The slight bulge formed between the zygomatich arch and the masseter region ( cheek bone) should be in harmony with the total length of the head. The head's muscles must be strongly developed.

Frontal nasal descent (Stop)
The frontal nasal descent (stop) is slightly developed but clearly visible.

Nostril region (Planum)
The planum is large and well developed but not protruding and the nostrils are well opened. The color is black, on black dogs, and allowed in a lighter shade for brown dogs so that it is suited with their coat.

The muzzle is strongly developed and proportionated with the head. The muzzle shall be high and wide also in the upper and lower incisor area. The labial opening should reach the molars.

The lips are firm and tight to the jaw and they should ensure a perfect closure of the mouth. The gum pigment is dark in black dogs and of a lighter shade in browns.

Jaws, Dentition, Teeth
Upper and lower jaws are powerful and wide with a scissor bite. Full dentition required with 42 teeth correctly placed and normally developed.

Medium size, oval, with a dark color iris. In browns dogs the color is allowed of a lighter shade. The eyelid is well tied to the eye bulb. The palpebral fissure is bordered with eyelashes.

The ear is highly set to the skull and carried erect. The crop is done in proportion with the head length. In those countries, where cropping is forbidden, the intact ear is equally accepted and has the same value in a show contest. An intact ear shall be of a medium size with the front edge lying flat to the cheek.


The neck is of a good length proportioned with the head and the rest of the body. It is muscular, the skin is relatively tight and firm and the superior outline gently curved. The posture is erect as a sign of noble distinction.


Well pronounced especially in males. The height and length are determinant for the dorsal top line that is lightly ascending starting from the croup.

Back (dorsal region)
The back is firm, strong and of proportionate length covered with well developed muscles.

Of good length and well covered with muscles. In the females the loins can be a little longer to allow room for the breast.

A hardly perceptible inclination, starting from the sacrum to the tail root. The croup appears well rounded with a good width and covered with strong muscles. From a top line view it should not be either perfectly straight or noticeably inclined.

Chest and Thorax
The height and the depth of the thorax must be well proportionated to the withers' height and to the length of the body. The ribs are lightly curved so that the thorax height is almost equal to half of the withers' height. The chest is of a good width with an especially developed fore chest.

Starting from the sternum's posterior edge and arriving to the pelvis the ventral line of the abdomen is well tacked in.

The tail is highly set and docked short so that 2 caudal vertebrae are still visible. In those countries where docking is illegal the tail may remain intact.


From every side of view the front legs appear strongly developed, almost straight and vertical to the ground.

The shoulder lies tight to the thorax. The scapula is covered with stung muscles from both sides of its spine and reach over the spinus process of the thoracic vertebras. The shoulder blade is well set back and has an approximately 50 degree angle to the horizontal line.

Upper Arm
The upper arm is of a good length and well muscled. The angle between the scapula and the humerus is of 105/110 degrees.

The elbows are well tied to the thorax and not turning out.

Lower Arm
The lower arm is strong, straight and covered with muscles. Its length is in proportion with the rest of the body.

Carpal Region
The carpal joint is strong and firm.

Metacarpal Region
With a solid bone structure that follow the lower arm's vertical line. From the frontal view the metacarpus appear straight, from a side view it shows a flexion of a 10 degree maximum.

Front Foot
The front feet are short. The toes are tied together and arched toward the top (cat paw). The nails are short and black.

As a whole, seen from behind, the Dobermann looks wide and rounded thanks to the strong musculature of the pelvis and the croup. The muscles that leave from the pelvis running down the thigh and those that reach the knee and the lower thigh, give a substantial width to the whole hindlimb that appear to be very powerful. The hindlimbs are strong parallel and perpendicular to the ground.

The thighs are of a good length, wide and well covered with muscles. The coxale (pelvis bone) must have a good inclination. The thigh rest at approximately 80 degrees from the horizontal line.

The femur, the tibia and the patella form the robust articulation of the knee, which has angulations of approximately 130 degrees.

Lower Thigh
The lower thigh is of a medium length in proportion with the whole hindlimb length.

They are moderately robust and parallel. The tibia and the metatarsal form an angle of approximately 140 degrees.

The metatarsal is short and perpendicular to the ground

Hind foot
Like the front foot, the hind feet are short with the toes tighted together and arched to the top. Nails short and black.

The gait is very important for the type of work that the dog is destined to do as well as for the morphological evaluation. The movement is elastic, elegant, agile, free and covers ground easily. The front limbs bounce forward while the hindlimbs give the necessary push to make a vigorous step. While trotting, one of the front limbs goes forward simultaneously with one of the hindlimbs from the opposite side. During the movement, the back the ligament and the joints, are firm.
The skin is well pigmented and adhered everywhere.

Hair Texture
The hair is short, hard, thick, smooth, shiny, tight and uniformly distributed over the whole body. Undercoat is not allowed.

Hair Color
The colors are black or brown with rust red markings. The markings are clean and well delineated. The markings are on the muzzle, as spots on the cheeks and above the eyebrows, on the throat, as 2 spots on the forechest, all around the metacarpals and the metatarsals, the feet, on the inside of the thighs and over the perineal region and the ischiatic tuber region.

Size and Weight

Males 68-72 cm (26,77- 28,35 inches)
Females 63-68 cm (24,80- 26,77 inches)
For both sex a medium size is desirable

Males 40-45 Kg (85-95 lbs.)
Female 32-34 Kg (65-75 lbs.)


Any variation of the standard is considered a fault and during the judging would be penalized according to it seriousness.

General Appearance
Inability to distinguish secondary sexual dimorphism, not enough substance, too light, too heavy, high on the limbs or week bone.

Too wide, too narrow, too long, too much or too little stop. Bad slope of the skull's top line, Roman nose. Weak under jaw. Round eye or slant eye, light eye, bulging eye, deeply set eye. Cheek too prominent. Lips not tight enough or overlapping too much. Labial opening not meeting tightly. Ears set too low or too high.

A little short or too short. Too much skin on the neck, dew-lap, deer neck, too long and not in proportion with the rest of the body.

Back not solid and firm enough, sway back, arched back or sloping croup. Insufficent or too much spring of the ribs,insufficient or not well developed forechest, back too long overall, ventral underline too loose or too retracted. Tail set too low or too high (flag tail).

Too poor or too much angulation of the front and hind limbs. Elbows loose. Any of the bone or joint's position or length that is different from the standard, feet too close together or too wide apart, cow hocks, spread hocks, close hocks, open or flat foot, toes not well developed, pale nails.

Markings too light or not well delineated, smudged markings, mask too dark, charcoal spots on the limbs, markings too big or too small on the forechest, long, soft, curly or dull hair. Bold patches or with lighter hair color. Large tufts of hair especially on the body. Visible undercoat.

Behavior and Temperament
Absence of psychological equilibrium, too much or too weak temperament, too aggressive, inappropriate biting, vicious dog. Too low or too high tolerance before reaction.

Deviation of size up to 2 cm from the standard should result in a lower grading.

Wobbling, tripping, stiff movement, or pacing

Disqualifying Faults

Severe inversion of the sexual dimorphism.

Yellow eye (raptor eye), wall eye.

Prognathism (underbite), enognathism (overbite), level bite, missing teeth.

White spots, hair too long or too curly, extremely light coat or with large bold patches.

Scared, shy or timid dog, distrustful or vicious dog, nervous or too aggressive.

Sizes that deviate of more than 2 cm over or under the standard chart.

Males should have 2 normal testicles fully descended into the scrotum.


In Swedish










Dobermann är den enda tyska hundras, vars rasnamn anknyter till sin första kända uppfödare: Friedrich Louis Dobermann (1834-1894). Förutom som uppfödare var han verksam som skatteindrivare, rackare och stadens hundfångare med laglig rätt att infånga alla kringströvande hundar. Från denna depå handplockade han särskilt skarpa hundar för avelsbruk. De s k "slaktarhundarna", som redan vid denna tid kunde betraktas som en tämligen homogen "ras", utgjorde troligen den främsta grunden för dobermannrasen. Dessa hundar, ett slags föregångare till nutida rottweiler, uppblandade med en schäfervariant från Thürigen, som var svart med roströda tecken. Från nämnda blandning hundar framavlade han på 1870-talet dobermann, som vid denna tid erhöll sina bruksegenskaper, både som vakt-, gårds- och sällskapshand. Den användes flitigt som polishund och fick därför benämningen "gendarmerihund". Vid jakt användes den främst för rovdjursbekämpning. Mot denna bakgrund var det nästan självklart att dobermann redan i början av 1900-talet officiellt blev erkänd som polishund. I avelsarbetet eftersträvas en medelstor, kraftig och muskulöst byggd hund, som trots den substansfulla kroppen uppvisar elegans och ädelhet. Den är synnerligen lämplig som sällskaps-, skydds- och brukshund såväl som familjehund.



Dobermann är en medelstor, kraftig och muskulöst byggd hund. Genom sina eleganta linjer och stolta hållning,

sitt temperament och beslutsamma uttryck motsvarar den idealbilden av en hund.

Viktiga måttförhållanden:

Kroppen skall vara nästan kvadratisk, vilket gäller framför allt hanhunden. Kroppslängden (från bröstbenet

till sittbensknölen) skall hos hanhundar inte överskrida mankhöjden med mer än 5% och hos tikar med högst 10%.


Dobermann skall till sin karaktär vara vänlig och fredlig. Den är mycket trogen sin familj och barnkär.

Eftersträvansvärt är måttligt livligt temperament, samt måttlig skärpa och retningströskel. En dobermanns

goda följsamhet och arbetsglädje samt prestationsförmåga, mod och hårdhet bör även beaktas. Rasen skall

också ha en balanserad uppmärksamhet på omvärlden och stor vikt skall läggas vid självsäkerhet och oräddhet.






Skallen skall vara kraftig och i proportion till kroppen. Sedd ovanifrån har skallen formen av en avhuggen kil.

Hjässans tvärlinje skall framifrån sett löpa nästan vågrätt (hjässan skall vara plan) och alltså inte slutta mot öronen.

En nästan rak linje skall löpa från nosryggen till pannbenet och sedan bilda en lätt rundning mot nacken.

Ögonbrynsbågama skall vara väl utvecklade utan att vara framträdande. Pannfåran skall knappt vara synlig.

Nackknölen skall inte vara påfallande markerad. Huvudets muskler skall vara kraftigt utvecklade.


Föga markerat stop, men likväl fullt synligt.


Nostryffeln skall vara väl utvecklad, mer bred än rund och med stora näsborrar utan att i sin helhet vara framträdande.

Hos svarta hundar skall nostryffeln vara svart, hos bruna får den vara brun.


Nospartiet skall vara i proportion till skallen, och vara kraftigt utvecklat och djupt. Munnen sträcker sig bakåt ända till molarerna.

Nosen skall också vara bred i partiet kring övre och undre framtänderna. Läppar: Läpparna skall ligga stramt an mot käkarna.

De skall vara mörkt pigmenterade, hos bruna hundar får pigmenteringen vara något ljusare. 


Över- och underkäkar skall vara kraftiga och breda. Saxbett med 42 normalstora tänder

vilka skall motsvara tandformeln.


Framifrån och ovanifrån skall huvudets flata sidor inte verka utstående. 


Ögonen skall vara medelstora, ovala och mörka. Hos bruna hundar får de vara något ljusare.

Ögonlockskanterna skall vara åtliggande och väl behårade. 


Öronen skall vara högt ansatta och bäras upprätt och kuperade till en längd som passar till huvudet.

I länder med kuperingsförbud bedöms okuperade öron likvärdigt.

De skall vara medelstora med den inre kanten liggande slätt an mot kinden.



[Kuperade dobermann födda 2008-01-01 och senare får inte tävla i utställning i Sverige,

oavsett vilket land hunden kommer ifrån.]



Halsen skall vara av god längd och stå i proportion till kropp och huvud. Den skall vara torr och

muskulös och bilda en uppåtstigande elegant böjd linje. Hållningen skall vara mycket ädel och stram.







Manken skall i synnerhet hos hanhundar vara kraftigt utvecklad. Dess höjd och längd bestämmer

rygglinjens lutning mot korset.


Ryggen skall vara kort, fast, ha god bredd och vara muskulös. 


Tikar får ha något längre ländparti.


Korset skall slutta svagt, nästan omärkligt från korsbenet mot svansfästet. Korset verkar därmed väl

avrundat och skall varken vara plant eller påfallande sluttande. Det skall ha god bredd med kraftig muskulatur. 


Bröstkorgens längd och djup skall vara i proportion till rygglängden. Bröstdjupet med dess lätt välvda

revben skall nästan nå halva mankhöjden. Bröstet skall ha god bredd och ett utpräglat förbröst.


Från bröstkorgens bakre del till bäckenet skall buken vara tydligt uppdragen. 


Svansen skall vara högt ansatt och kuperas kon varvid två svanskotor behållas. I länder där

svanskuperingsförbud utfärdats förblir svansen kvar naturlig.






De kraftigt utvecklade frambenen skall från alla sidor sett vara nästan raka, dvs. stå lodrätt mot marken. 


Skulderbladen skall ligga tätt an mot bröstkorgen, vara muskulösa och täcka övre delen av bröstkorgen.

De skall vara väl tillbakalagda och så snedställda som möjligt, med en vinkel mot den vågräta kroppslinjen på ca 50°. 


Överarmen skall vara av god längd och ha god muskulatur med en vinkel till skulderbladet på ca 105-110°. 


Armbågen skall vara väl åtliggande, inte utåtvriden.


Underarmen skall vara kraftig, rak och ha god muskulatur. Dess längd skall stå i proportion till kroppslängden. 


Handloven skall vara kraftig. 


Mellanhanden skall vara kraftig, framifrån sett rak och från sidan sett med endast en antydan till vinkel (högst 10°). 


Tassarna skall vara korta och slutna. Tårna skall vara välvda (kattfot), klorna korta och mörka.


Sedd bakifrån verkar dobermann på grund av sin kraftiga bäckenmuskulatur bred och rund över höfter och kors.

De muskler som löper från bäckenet till lår och underben ger också en bra bredd på låret, knäpartiet och underbenet.

De kraftiga bakbenen skall vara parallella. 


Låret skall ha samma längd och bredd med kraftiga muskler. God vinkel vid höftleden.

Vinkeln till den vågräta kroppslinjen skall vara ca 80-85°. 


Låret och underbenet bildar tillsammans med knäskålen den kraftiga knäleden,

som skall vara vinklad i 130°. 


Underbenet skall vara medellångt och i proportion till bakbenets totala längd. 


Hasleden skall vara medelkraftig och parallell. Underbenets vinkel mot mellanfoten

vid hasleden skall vara ca 140°. 


Mellanfoten skall vara kort och stå lodrätt mot marken. 


Baktassar som framtassar.


Rörelserna har stor betydelse både för prestationsförmågan och det exteriöra helhetsintrycket.

De skall vara elastiska, eleganta, fria och vägvinnande. Frambenen för kroppen med långa

steg framåt och bakbenen ger det nödvändiga påskjutet i ett långt, markvinnande och

fjädrande steg. I trav sätter hunden den ena sidans framben och den andra sidans bakben i

marken samtidigt. Stor fasthet i rygg, ledband och leder är nödvändigt.



Huden skall överallt vara stram och väl pigmenterad.






Pälsen skall vara kort, hård och tät. Den skall vara slät och blank och av samma kvalitet överallt.

Underull är inte tillåtet. 


Färgen skall vara svart eller brun med roströda, skarpt avgränsade och rena tecken. Roströda tecken

skall finnas på nospartiet, kinderna och övre ögonbrynsbågarna, på strupen, som två fläckar på

bröstet, på mellanhänderna, mellanfötterna och tassarna, på insidan av bakbenen, på sittbensknölarna,

runt anus samt på svansens undersida.






Hanhund 68-72 cm. Tik 63-68 cm. Medelstorlek eftersträvas.


Hanhund ca 40-45 kg. Tik ca 32-35 kg.




Varje avvikelse från standarden är fel och skall bedömas i förhållande till graden av avvikelse.



Avsaknad av könsprägel och massa. För lätt, för tung, för högställd. Klen benstomme.


För kraftigt, för smalt, för kort och för långt huvud. För djupt eller för grunt stop. Ramsnos.

För starkt sluttande hjässlinje. Klen underkäke. Runda, sneda eller ljusa ögon. Bulliga kinder.

Lösa läppar. Utstående eller djupt liggande ögon. För högt eller för lågt ansatta öron. Öppna mungipor.


Något kort eller för kort hals. Hjorthals eller för lång hals (oproportionerligt).

Alltför mycket löst halsskinn, hakpåsar.


För svag rygg, sluttande kors, svank- eller karprygg. För mycket eller för litet välvda revben,

otillräcklig bröstbredd och bröstdjup. Ryggpartiet som helhet för långt. Otillräckligt utvecklat förbröst.

För högt eller för lågt ansatt svans. För mycket eller för litet uppdragen buk.


För litet eller för mycket vinkling i fram- och bakställ. Lösa armbågar. Ben eller leder vars längd

och läge avviker från standarden. Tåtrång eller tåvid benställning. Kohasighet, hjulbenthet eller

trångt bakställ. Lösa eller platta tassar. Förkrympta tår. Ljusa klor.


För lång, för mjuk, glanslös, vågig eller gles päls. Kala fläckar. Större hårvirvel,

i synnerhet på kroppen. Underull.


För ljusa, oskarpa eller orena fläckar. För mörk mask. Stora, svarta fläckar på benen.

Knappt synliga eller för stora bröstfläckar.


Bristande självförtroende. För hetsigt temperament, för stor skärpa.

För hög eller för låg retningströskel.


Mankhöjd, som med högst 2 cm avviker från den i standarden angivna.


Ostadiga, ofria och trippande rörelser samt passgång.



Diskvalificerande fel:



Uttalad brist på könsprägel.


Gula ögon (rovfågelsögon), olikfärgade ögon.


Överbett eller tångbett, underbett. Tandantal som understiger tandformeln.


Utpräglat långhårig eller lockig päls. Anmärkningsvärt tunnhårig päls

eller päls med större kala fläckar.


Vita fläckar.


Ängsligt, skyggt, nervöst eller aggressivt uppförande eller karaktär.


Mankhöjd som över- eller understiger den i standarden föreskrivna med mer än 2 cm.


Hos hanhundar måste båda testiklarna vara fullt utvecklade och normalt belägna i pungen.


Blå färg finns sedan 1994 inte angiven som tillåten i standarden. Färgen accepteras dock fram till 1999-01-01.